While the House and Senate farms bills agree on many investments, the plans diverge on key issues such as conservation programs, which now turn away two-thirds of applicants due to funding shortfalls. Money from the Inflation Reduction Act could fund two-thirds of the applications. The Senate plan is focused on cutting the climate impact of agriculture, while the House proposal would cover all conservation programs and expand the definition of conservation programs.

There is also disagreement over the SNAP program, which receives about 80% of current farm bill funds. The House bill seeks reforms, while the Senate bill opposes any cuts.

A 2023 Environmental Working Group report uncovered losses from extreme weather spiked by 500% between 2021 and 2023. Both proposals plan to increase crop insurance programs. The House bill wants taxpayers to pick up more of the coverage cost, which opponents claim subsidizes large producers. The Senate bill seeks to make crop insurance more accessible to small farmers and producers who typically get left out of federal crop insurance programs.

Read more about differences in the Senate and House ag bill proposals here.