One fire alone caused $1 billion in damage and destruction to the Napa County, California, wine industry, and as officials continue to tally similar losses, the results are staggering. Beyond the grape crop itself, winery infrastructure was destroyed by fires, adding exponentially to the losses and causing many to forego 2020 vintages altogether. Smoke is another factor; vineyards — most of which have at least partial crop insurance coverage — that weren’t directly affected by the flames saw grape crop output and quality plummet from smoke damage. Moving forward, the Napa region will be challenged by how the vineyard industry is restored, both from fires and the COVID-19 pandemic that caused massive economic losses of its own for the region’s top industry. Read more on the wine country losses.