As wildfires becomes a more widespread in the Western U.S., increasingly becoming an annual issue, researchers are expending more resources to determine the severity smoke damage does to the $231 billion dairy industry. The effects of wildfire smoke are believed to go beyond just losses in milk production (partially caused by heat stress), contributing to a decline of the overall health and, in some cases, mortality of dairy cows and calves. One example, an Oregon farmer reported six of their cows developed pneumonia in 2018 after a rough season, likely due to the fine particles from wildfire smoke. See more of the data behind losses in milk production.